United States / USD Country & Currency
Country
United States
Currency
US Dollars
Save
Country
Australia
Bahrain
Barbados
Belgium
Cayman Islands
Cyprus
Falkland Islands
Gibraltar
Grenada
Guam
Hong Kong
India
Latvia
Malaysia
Maldives
Malta
Martinique
Monaco
Montserrat
Namibia
Netherlands
Northern Ireland
Poland
Puerto Rico
Scotland
Singapore
St Lucia
St Vincent and the Grenadines
Sweden
Switzerland
Taiwan
Thailand
United Kingdom
United States
Currency
US Dollars
GB Pounds
AU Dollars
Euro
Explore our range Categories
Ask us a question 877-271-6591 or 800-868-9064
COVID-19 Shipping Update

There are delays in the postal system, please order early. More information is here.

Shipping delays due to Covid-19 Virus

Please fill the form to receive updates when we can ship your order.

Arthritis / Joint and Bone

Our Joint and Bone Health category contains a wide range of prescription and non-prescription medications used to treat arthritis, including rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, as well as other inflammatory joint conditions like gout, to relieve symptoms of pain and inflammation, also for treating osteoporosis to prevent bone loss.

The different classes of joint and bone medication are listed on the left of the page and when you click on one of these, the principal brand name products display in the left column and generic alternatives to the right.

Use the search feature to quickly find the product you are looking for, by entering either the active ingredient, e.g. celecoxib or the product name, e.g. Celebrex.

Our Anti-Gout class of Joint and Bone Health products contains medications that are used to treat gout and gouty arthritis to prevent uric acid crystals in joints and relieve pain and inflammation.

Use the search feature to quickly find the product you are looking for by entering either the active ingredient, e.g. probenecid; or the product name e.g. Probenecid-AFT.

What is gout?

Gout is caused by an excess of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricaemia) which forms crystals and these uric acid crystals are then deposited in the joints and tissues. Uric acid is a produced as a result of metabolism of purines, which are found in high protein foods like meat and fish. Excess uric acid is normally removed by the kidneys, however, if too much is produced or the kidneys cannot dispose of it sufficiently uric acid build up in the blood.
Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints causes painful swelling of the joints and loss of joint mobility and affects mainly the big toe but can affect other joints, including joints of the hands, feet, knee and elbow. There are several risk factors for gout including genetic predisposition, obesity, excess alcohol intake and high meat consumption.

Uricosuric treatments for gout

There are specific medications for treating gout, which are known as a uricosuric drug that helps the removal of uric acid from the blood and this reduces the risk of uric acid crystals being deposited in the joints. Uricosuric drugs like probenecid work by acting directly on the kidneys to increase excretion of uric acid by the kidneys and this limits the amount of uric acid in the blood. Less uric acid reduces crystal formation, which allows the crystals already in the joints to dissolve and the pain and swelling to be reduced.

Other gout treatments

Allopurinol blocks an enzyme involved in uric acid synthesis and this reduces the amount of uric acid production and reduces levels of uric acid in the blood. Allopurinol is also used for prevention of kidney stone formation and uric acid crystals under the skin called skin tophi.

Colchicine blocks the action of inflammatory cells and is used to treat gout to help reduce inflammation associated with uric acid crystals in the joints.
Read more
Our Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory class of Joint and Bone Health medications are used to help reduce pain and inflammation of arthritis in joints due to all forms of arthritis.

Use the search feature to quickly find the product you are looking for by entering either the active ingredient, e.g. celecoxib; or the product name e.g. Celebrex.

What is inflammation?

Inflammation is a normal reaction to protect the body from harmful pathogens or irritants, such as chemicals, and to promote healing of damaged tissues, as in arthritis. It is a complex process of cellular interactions of the immune system that is mediated by chemicals produced at the site of tissue damage, infection or trauma.

The process of inflammation includes the widening and increased permeability of small blood vessels, exudation of fluid into and migration of immune cells like macrophages and neutrophils into the tissues where damage, infection or irritation has occurred. The fluid causes swelling and the cells produce inflammatory chemicals like prostaglandins, interleukins and leukotrienes. These chemicals attract more inflammatory cells to help with wound healing and disposing of harmful pathogens but they also magnify the inflammatory response. In doing their job, some of these inflammatory mediators can also cause pain, swelling, fever and redness. If the inflammatory process continues beyond protecting and healing, it becomes chronic and can end up damaging normal tissues.

Inflammation and prostaglandins

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins like PGE2, which have important functions throughout the body but are also potent inflammatory mediators and cause pain, swelling and other symptoms of inflammation. They are called nonsteroidal as corticosteroids are also used to treat inflammation but target a different enzyme in the pathway of prostaglandin synthesis.

There are two known COX enzymes, COX-1, COX-2 and there is also a variant of COX-1, known as COX-3, which is found mainly in the brain. COX-1 is present in most cells and plays an important role in many normal cell functions, including aggregation of blood platelets, which controls bleeding; protection of the stomach lining or mucosa by promoting cell growth; also in maintaining normal kidney function by regulating blood flow. COX-2 is only produced by inflammatory cells, and is induced during the inflammatory process, although it is also found in very small amounts in some tissues.

Oral anti- inflammatory drugs

Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) target inflammation systemically, wherever it occurs throughout the body and can be used for short-term or long-term treatment of inflammatory joint diseases like arthritis, to help relieve pain and improve mobility in affected joints.

Meloxicam and celecoxib are specific COX-2 inhibitors and have no inhibitory action against COX-1, which makes them more effective for pain and inflammation, without the gastrointestinal or kidney side effects associated with COX-1 inhibition.

Topical anti-inflammatory drugs

Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that inhibits primarily COX-2 but also has some inhibitory effect on COX-1 and is, therefore, more specific as an anti-inflammatory than other non-specific NSAIDs like Ibuprofen. As a topical treatment for arthritis, diclofenac is absorbed through the skin and acts directly on the soft tissues surrounding joints to relieve pain and inflammation due to sprains and strains. It also acts within superficial arthritic joints, such as the hands, wrists, elbows, knees, ankles or feet, to reduce inflammation due to osteoarthritis and relieve symptoms like pain and swelling in the joints.
Read more
Our Osteoporosis class of Joint and Bone Health medications are used to treat osteoporosis to prevent thinning of bones by increasing bone density, which reduces risk of fracture.

Use the search feature to quickly find the product you are looking for by entering either the active ingredient, e.g. aledronate; or the product name e.g. Osteofos.

What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is the thinning of the bones which results in increased risk of fracture particularly in the hip, spine, wrist and upper arm. Multiple fractures of the vertebrae can cause stooped posture and loss of height which is very common in the elderly. Fractures cause chronic and acute pain and can cause disability and loss of mobility. Bone loss is gradual and is usually symptom free until it is advanced.

Osteoporosis affects both men and women and is a common problem associated with aging. It is also associated with lack of oestrogen in postmenopausal women; or following treatment with corticosteroids, an anti-inflammatory steroid that can cause bone loss. Risk factors for osteoporosis include, family history, smoking, excessive alcohol intake, thin build, lack of physical activity, lack of dietary calcium and low levels of Vitamin D.

Bone turnover and osteoporosis

Bone turnover is the normal mechanism for bone remodelling, which is a dynamic process that allows bones to grow and repair. Bone resorption and formation takes place constantly on the surface of bones. Resorption is carried out by osteoclast cells and is the process by which bone is broken down and minerals like calcium and phosphate released into the blood. Bone formation is carried out by osteoblast cells and is the process by which new bone is formed, with a build-up of bone matrix containing proteins, calcium, phosphate and other minerals, which form the scaffolding that gives bone its strength.

When the process of bone turnover is out of balance and bone loss is greater than bone formation this results is a loss of bone mass making bones brittle and likely to fracture more easily. Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone and when this falls below a certain level, this is defined as osteoporosis.

Treatments for osteoporosis

Treatments for osteoporosis are based on increasing bone mineral density and reducing bone turnover, thereby restoring the balance between bone resorption and formation, to prevent loss of bone density in people with or at risk of osteoporosis.

Bisphosphonates like alendronate and risedronate are an effective treatment for osteoporosis. They are synthetic chemicals similar to the naturally occurring pyrophosphates that are formed form as a product of normal phosphate metabolism. Like pyrophosphates, biphosphonates binds strongly to hydroxyapatite, the mineralised bone scaffolding, at the site of bone resorption. This inhibits the action of osteoclasts in resorbing bone reducing the amount of bone remodelling and loss of calcium from bone. Biphosponates can also be used in combination with cholecalciferol or Vitamin D3, which is converted to its active form, calcitriol, a hormone that regulates calcium metabolism. Calcitriol regulates calcium absorption in the intestine and excretion in the kidneys. If there is a lack of Vitamin D3 then calcium levels may become low and this contributes to brittle bones and to osteoporosis. Calcitriol also regulates bone remodelling. Combining cholecalciferol with bisphosphonates adds another dimension to combatting osteoporosis.

Another treatment for osteoporosis is raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator. Loss of oestrogen at menopause is associated with increased bone remodelling. Raloxifene mimics the actions of oestrogen and binds to the oestrogen receptor in bone, where it inhibits the actions of osteoclasts.
Read more
Our prescription class of arthritis medications contains oral anti-inflammatory drugs to help reduce pain and inflammation of arthritis in joints due to all forms of arthritis; also a specific medication for treating gout and gouty arthritis.

Use the search feature to quickly find the product you are looking for by entering either the active ingredient, e.g. celecoxib; or the product name e.g. Celebrex.

Oral anti- inflammatory drugs

Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) target inflammation systemically, wherever it occurs throughout the body. They work by inhibiting the action of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) that is involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Some NSAIDs, including celecoxib and meloxicam, are more specific and inhibit only the COX 2 enzyme that produces the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2, and not COX1 enzyme that is needed for normal cellular processes. These NSAIDs can be used for short-term or long-term treatment, depending on the condition, and they may help improve mobility in affected joints.

Gout uricosuric drug

Gout and gouty arthritis are caused by excess uric acid in the blood being deposited in joints as crystals and causing inflammation with its associated pain and swelling. Uricosuric drugs work by acting directly on the kidneys to limit the amount of uric acid in the blood and reduce crystal formation, which allows the crystals already in the joints to dissolve and the pain and swelling to be reduced.
Read more

What is arthritis?

Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints that affects many people and exists in several forms, each caused by a different underlying mechanism. Despite their different causes, all forms of arthritis share common symptoms including pain, inflammation, tenderness, stiffness and swelling and reduced mobility of the affected joint. There is generally no cure for arthritis but there are treatments available that can relieve symptoms and help improve joint mobility.

The most common forms of arthritis are:
  • Osteoarthritis or “wear and tear” of the joints is caused disintegration of the cartilage that normally cushions the ends of the joints, leaving the unprotected bones to rub against each other. It is most common in the hips, knees, hands and spine.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease, when the immune system attacks the body’s tissues, in this case the lining of the joint or synovium, causing inflammation and swelling of the joint. Because it is a systemic disease, it can affect many different parts of the body.

  • Gout is caused by a build up of uric acid in the blood that becomes deposited in the joints, resulting in acute inflammation, swelling and pain in a specific joint, most commonly the big toe.

  • Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of arthritis caused by chronic inflammation of the vertebrae in the spine that can eventually lead to fusion of the vertebrae, restricting movement of the spine.

Natural therapies for arthritis

Joints need healthy flexible cartilage to protect and cushion them against wear and tear. Cartilage is synthesised in the body from building blocks that include glucosamine and chondroitin, but as we age less is produced, which increases risk of developing osteoarthritis. Supplementation with glucosamine and chondroitin may help improve levels needed to maintain cartilage and help reduce the progression of osteoarthritis.

Anti-inflammatory treatments

Inflammation is a symptom common to all forms of arthritis. It is caused by the production of inflammatory chemicals called prostaglandins that cause swelling, redness, pain and reduced mobility. Anti-inflammatory medications prevent the formation of prostaglandins by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) that is induced during the inflammation process and is responsible for the synthesis prostaglandins. These anti-inflammatory medications, also known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and can be used as oral or topical medications.

Treatments for Gout

Treatments for gout include medications that reduce formation of uric acid crystals and reduce the action of inflammatory cells in affected joints.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is the loss of bone mass resulting in brittle bones, which can fracture more easily, causing pain and disability. Osteoporosis affects men and women and is often associated with the aging process. Other causes of osteoporosis include lack of oestrogen in postmenopausal women, following treatment with corticosteroids that can cause bone loss, as well as several risk factors. Medications available for osteoporosis include the non-hormonal bisphosphonates, Vitamin D and oestrogen receptor modulators, which all help increase bone density by reducing the rate of bone loss.
Read more
 

This website uses cookies. View our policy and select your preferences here