The range of conditions treated under the General class of medications includes:
- Skin conditions like solar (actinic) keratoses and basal cell carcinoma caused by sun damage.
- Genital/perianal warts, which are warts on the surface of the genitals and around the anus caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV).
- Gout, which is painful swelling of the joints and loss of joint mobility, caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints.
- Inflammatory conditions associated with an overactive immune system like severe eczema, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Crohn's disease.
- Vascular headaches like migraine and menopausal hot flushes, caused by dilation of blood vessels in the brain and skin respectively.
- Infertility in women due to lack of ovulation.
- Breast cancers that are estrogen-dependent.
- Nausea and vomiting due to several conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, dysmobility (slowing down of food through the GI tract), food poisoning, migraine, chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer treatment, reaction to surgical anaesthetic.
- Incontinence, which is loss of bladder control.
- Thrombosis, which is blood clot formation that can cause a heart attack or stroke in people who have cardiovascular disease.
- Malaria, a parasitic disease.
- Vascular problems, including peripheral artery disease, when large arteries in the arms and legs become obstructed or partially blocked; also circulatory disorders in the eyes and ears, where the blood vessels have degenerated and can lead to impairment of sight and hearing
Meniere's syndrome is a disorder of the inner ear and is caused by too much fluid (endolymph) in the fluid-filled canals of the inner ear, a condition called endolymphatic hydrops. This puts pressure on the sensory cells in the canals and disturbs the transmission of nerve impulses relating to balance, causing the brain to trigger the vomiting reflex. This induces symptoms including vertigo, a spinning sensation that can cause nausea and vomiting, and affects hearing and balance.
Medications that are used to help relieve symptoms of Meniere's syndrome block the transmission of nerve impulses from the inner ear to the vomiting center in the brain. The histamine agonist betahistine works by binding to histamine receptors in the capillaries (small blood vessels) of the inner ear, which increases their permeability allowing the excess fluid to drain away from the inner ear and relieving the pressure on the sensory cells. Betahistine also binds to histamine receptors on nerve cells, blocking transmission of nerve signals that are interpreted by the brain as disruptive to hearing and balance.
class="editor">Range of general medications
- The immunomodifier and antiviral imiquimod activates immune cells to produce chemicals involved in fighting invasion by pathogens like viruses and killing tumour cells; a property used to treat genital/perianal warts caused by infection with HPV and basal cell carcinoma; also to produce inflammatory reactions a property used to treat skin conditions like solar (actinic) keratoses.
- Allopurinol reduces uric acid productions and thereby reduces levels of uric acid in the blood, and is used for the treatment of gout and prevention of kidney stone formation.
- Colchicine tha blocks the action of inflammatory cells and is used to treat gout to help reduce inflammation associated with uric acid crystals in the joints.
- The anti-inflammatory corticosteroids prednisone and hydrocortisone reduce inflammatory reactions in several conditions, by inhibiting the production of inflammatory chemicals like prostaglandins.
- The anti-inflammatory prednisone a synthetic glucocorticoid, similar to the naturally occurring cortisol that is used for hormone replacement therapy to replace a lack natural corticosteroid in conditions such as underactive adrenal glands.
- The alpha-agonist clonidine acts on alpha adrenergic receptors in the brain and inhibits the release of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline, which inhibits peripheral vasodilation (small blood vessel to widen) and is used to treat vascular headaches like migraine; also menopausal hot flushes.
- Clomiphene a selective oestrogen receptor modulator that binds to the oestrogen receptor in the hypothalamus of the brain to induce ovulation and is used in the treatment of infertility.
- The anti-oestrogen tamoxifen blocks the oestrogen receptor on breast cancer cells and is used to treat breast cancers that are dependent on estrogen to grow.
- The antiemetics and dopamine antagonists domperidone and metoclopramide bind to dopamine receptors and block transmission of nerve signals to the vomiting centre in the brain, thereby blocking the vomiting reflex to prevent nausea and vomiting.
- The antispasmodic and anticholinergic oxybutynin acts directly on the smooth muscle of the bladder, to prevent spasmodic contraction and uncontrolled urination and is used to treat loss of bladder control leading to incontinence.
- The anti-platelet drug clopidogrel inhibits platelet aggregation and is used to reduce risk of a blood clot forming in people who have cardiovascular disease and who are at risk of heart attack or stroke.
- The anti-parasitic and schizontocide quinine that is to treat malaria by killing the infective stage of the plasmodium parasite that transmitted by a mosquito bite and causes malaria.
- The vasodilator oxpentifylline that causes blood vessels to widen and is used to increase blood flow in vascular several conditions.
A Pill Cutter is available to enable you to cut your pills or tablets into half, to reduce the dose of the medication.