Anti-oestrogen medicines, such as tamoxifen and anastrozole, are used to treat breast cancer in women. They can also be used to support the gender reassignment process for female to male transgender patients. Anastrozole blocks the synthesis of oestrogen in peripheral tissues such as adrenal glands and fat tissue, where testosterone can be converted to oestrogen. Tamoxifen blocks activation of the oestrogen receptor, preventing stimulation of female secondary sexual characteristics like breast tissue. Both medications help reduce the amount of oestrogen, which supports the suppression of female characteristics and the increase in masculine characteristics.
Combining medications that promote female characteristics while suppressing male characteristics, can help with the male to female gender reassignment process.
Medications combining oestrogen with an antiandrogen like cyproterone, are used to treat conditions in women caused by overproduction of androgens. These conditions include hirsutism (unwanted hair) and acne. Cyproterone alone is used to control extreme sexual desire in men that can cause aggressive behaviour. A combination of oestrogen with an antiandrogen can also be used to promote feminization while suppressing male characteristics, which helps support the gender reassignment process for male to female transgender patients. Oestrogens promote female characteristics, such as stimulating breast development and help make changes to the male body, such as reducing muscle mass and redistributing body fat. Antiandrogens are drugs that block the production and the effects of the male hormone testosterone and its more potent form, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Development of secondary male characteristics are stimulated by DHT. These include growth of the prostate gland, the testes, and body and facial hair.
Several forms of oestrogen can be used to promote the feminization process. These include conjugated oestrogens, which is a mixture of natural oestrogen in different forms. This preparation of oestrogen is used for hormone replacement therapy in women, to relieve symptoms of menopause. Conjugated oestrogens can also be used for hormone therapy as part of the gender reassignment process in male to female patients. Oestrogen combined with a progestogen like medroxyprogesterone, a synthetic form of the female sex hormone progesterone, may enhance the feminization process. Progesterone is involved in breast development. It also has antiandrogenic activity and works by blocking testosterone production.
Topical anaesthetic cream
A cream containing a combination of two topical anaesthetics is used for pain relief during minor superficial surgical procedures. These types of surgery may be needed during the gender reassignment process, for example, surgery involving genital skin.