Itrabond general information
What is Itrabond used for?
Itrabond capsules 200mg (also known as Sporanox) contain itraconazole, an antifungal medication used to treat fungal infections that can take hold in many parts of the body. These include superficial infections such as Tinea, Candidiasis, Pityriasis versicolor and Fungal Keratitis. Itrabond is also used to treat systemic infections that affect organs within the body.
Tinea and Ringworm
Tinea is a type of fungus known as a dermatophyte that infects the superficial layers of the skin; also hair and nails, living off dead skin cells. It spreads through the skin by putting out long branches called hyphae, which absorb nutrients from the skin, mainly keratin, a protein found in the top layers of skin.
Ringworm is another name for tinea, although it has nothing to do with worms. Ringworm is so-called because the infection causes a ring-shaped circular rash on the surface of the skin that has a red raised outer edge around normal skin, causing irritation and itching. Also, the hyphae have a worm-like appearance as they spread through the upper surface of the skin.
Fungal infection spreads by direct contact with someone who is infected with the fungus or from an object touched by an infected person such as a towel. It is easily spread when people gather together, such as in a changing room or a swimming pool.
Symptoms of a tinea infection include itching, inflammation, burning, scaling and redness that are caused by the body’s reaction to the fungal infection.
Tinea can infect different areas of skin, and the infection is named accordingly:
- tinea corporis – infection of the body
- tinea pedis - infection of the foot, particularly between the toes and this is more commonly known as athlete’s foot
- tinea cruris – infection of the groin area or upper thigh, commonly known as jock itch
- tinea unguium – also called onychomycosis is infection of the fingernails and toenails
Candida or thrush
Candida albicans is a yeast fungus that infects mucous membranes such as in the mouth and vagina. It is commonly known as thrush, and the infection is called candidiasis. Candida lives in the intestines and the mouth and normally does not cause any problems. Its growth is kept controlled by other microorganisms like bacteria and also by the immune system. However, if this fine balance is disturbed, Candida can become overgrown. This can be triggered by changing hormone levels, stress, some medications like steroids and antibiotics, some cancer treatments and conditions like diabetes. Also, being immunocompromised, such as due to HIV infection, can cause an overgrowth of Candida. Once candida begins to grow it invades the moist mucosal membranes and causes inflammation.
Sign of oral candidiasis are the formation of white patches in the mouth and on the tongue, causing irritation and difficulty swallowing. Symptoms of vaginal candidiasis include itching, burning and a thick creamy discharge.
Other fungal infections
Pityriasis versicolor is another type of yeast infection of the skin, which is caused by the yeast-like fungus Malassezia. Symptoms include itchy patches of scaly, discoloured skin that occurs mainly on the arms and trunk of the body. Malassezia lives on the skin of most people but does not cause problems until its growth is triggered. This can occur when the skin stays damp, for example, in hot, humid climates or due to excessive sweating, or when the immune system is weakened.
Fungal keratitis is an infection of the cornea of the eye caused by a mould fungus such as aspergillus or the yeast Candida. The eye becomes red and sore due to inflammation.
Systemic fungal infections
Histoplasmosis is caused by inhalation of a soil fungus into the lung resulting in flu-like symptoms. Aspergillosis is a lung infection that has symptoms including cough and difficulty breathing and is caused by inhaling spores of the mould fungus aspergillus. Systemic fungal infections are usually rare but more common in people who are immunocompromised, such as from HIV infection.
How does Itrabond work?
Itrabond capsules 200mg contain itraconazole, which is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug belonging to the triazole group of antifungals.
Ergosterol is a chemical found in the cell membrane of fungi but is not found in animal cells. It is a type of fat called a sterol and has the same function as cholesterol in animal cells, which is to maintain the structure of the cell membrane. Ergosterol also regulates permeability or leakiness of the cell. This prevents cell contents from leaking out and other fluids getting into the cell.
Synthesis of ergosterol is dependent on specific enzymes in the fungal cell and these enzymes are specifically inhibited by itraconazole. This blocks the synthesis of ergosterol, which weakens the fungal cell membrane, causing the fungal cell to become permeable and its contents to leak out. The fungal cell cannot survive, and therefore, itraconazole in Itrabond capsules 200mg kills the fungus. This prevents the infection from spreading, relieving symptoms caused by the infection, including itching and inflammation.
What does Itrabond contain?
Itrabond capsules contain the active ingredient itraconazole 200mg, a broad-spectrum antifungal drug used to treat a range of fungal infections.
What are the side effects of Itrabond?
Most medications have some side effects, but they are not experienced by everyone. Some side effects are commonly experienced when taking Itrabond, but others are not so common, and you should discuss any problems or concerns with your primary care physician.
Common side effects when taking Itrabond include upset stomach, stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, skin rash, headache, constipation, dizziness, menstrual disorders.
When should Itrabond not be used?
Have a talk with your primary healthcare physician before taking Itrabond so that you have a full understanding of what this medicine is for and how to use it. There are some reasons for not taking a medication; these are called contraindications, and for Itrabond you should consider the following before taking Itrabond:
- Have you ever had an unusual reaction or an allergy when taking Itrabond?
- Are you pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Do you have any problems with your kidneys or your liver?
- Do you have congestive heart failure?
What medications interact with Itrabond?
Some medicines interact with Itrabond and may affect the way it works, or are affected by Itrabond or increase side effects; you should discuss possible interactions with your primary care physician. These may include the antivirals rifampicin, rifabutin or zidovudine; terfenadine or astemizole for allergy, cisapride for reflux, the anticonvulsant phenytoin, the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide, medicines for diabetes such as glipizide, tolbutamide or glibenclamide, theophylline for asthma, the immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine, some benzodiazepines such as midazolam, cholesterol lowering drugs like simvastatin and lovastatin, ergotamine for migraine or ergometrine to prevent bleeding after childbirth, the calcium channel blocker nisoldipine for high blood pressure and angina, the antibiotics clarithromycin and erythromycin, the antipsychotic pimozide.
If other medications may interact with Itrabond, your doctor will discuss these with you.
How should Itrabond be taken and for how long?
You should take your Itrabond swallowed whole with a glass of water and with food once or twice daily. The dose you take, how often and for how long depends on what you are being treated for, the severity of your infection and your doctor’s recommendations.
You should always finish your course of Itrabond 200, which may be for a few days or weeks, if not, the infection may not clear up completely.
Missed dose of Itrabond
If you miss a dose of Itrabond take it as soon as you remember, unless it is time to take the next dose, then skip the missed dose. Do not take a double dose.
How should Itrabond be stored?
You should store your Itrabond capsules 200mg below 25°C in a cool dry place.