Mussel (NZ Green Lipped) 150 Capsules/Pack
New Zealand Green Lipped Mussel
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Mussel general information
What is Mussel used for?
Mussel capsules are a dietary supplement made from an extract of the New Zealand Green Lipped Mussel (GLM), which is rich in marine lipids and used to support healthy joints and maintain joint mobility. Mussel capsules are also used to reduce pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis and help repair of arthritic and injured joints. Osteoarthritis is commonly known as wear and tear, because as joints age, or as a result of injury, cartilage degenerates and this can result in degenerative joint disease like osteoarthritis, where bones are no longer cushioned, causing pain and inflammation, which leads to limited mobility of that joint. Mussel capsules are also used to reduce inflammatory responses in other conditions such as asthma.
How does Mussel work?
Mussel capsules contain an extract of the New Zealand Green Lipped Mussel (GLM) that is used for supporting healthy joints and relieving symptoms of osteoarthritis. GLM extract in Mussel capsules is rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids( EFA) including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The extract is also rich in glycosaminoglycans, particularly chondroitin, which is an important component of connective tissue particularly cartilage and tendons as they are part of the extracellular matrix that gives tensile strength to cartilage and they attract water molecules, which keeps cartilage hydrated and flexible and this helps to maintain its role as the “shock absorbers” of the joints. The EFAs found in GLM extract were identified as novel compounds1 with anti-inflammatory properties. They have been shown to block the lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways that lead to the formation of inflammatory mediators. GLM inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) particularly COX-2 that is induced during the inflammation process and is responsible for the synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins like PGE2 and other chemicals like pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukotrienes, which cause pain, swelling and other symptoms of inflammation2. The therapeutic value of Green Lipped Mussel (GLM) was originally based on the observation that Maori who regularly consumed GLMs, usually raw, suffered less arthritis than those who did not. This observation led to the development of various extracts of GLM for use as a dietary supplement. Mussel capsules contain an extract of GLM that is processed by freeze drying at low temperatures, as the nutrient value of GLM is lost when cooked or heated and this maintains the stability of the important EFAs. Animal studies in dogs3, 4 and rats5, 6 have indicated that GLM extract has anti-inflammatory properties and reduced pain due to osteoarthritis. Clinical studies have found variable results; however, a systematic review of randomised controlled trials found that GLM may be superior to placebo in treatment of mild to moderate osteoarthritis7. In a more recent study GLM extract was found to be superior to fish oil, which also has anti-inflammatory properties, in reducing pain and inflammation due to osteoarthritis8. There is also some clinical evidence that GLM extract can reduce inflammation in asthma, which is caused by chronic inflammation of the airways, resulting in bronchoconstriction or narrowing of the airways, which is induced by inflammatory chemicals like prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In a placebo controlled study GLM extract was found to reduce some symptoms in patients with chronic asthma, indicating that it may be of some clinical benefit9.
What does Mussel contain?
Mussel capsules contain an extract of New Zealand Green Lipped Mussel (300mg equivalent to1.5 g fresh mussel), containing the active ingredient omega-3 essential fatty acids that is used to promote healthy joints and improve symptoms of osteoarthritis. They also contain gelatine in the capsules case.
Treating osteoarthritis with Mussel
Mussel capsules contain an extract of the New Zealand Green Lipped Mussel (GLM) that is used for relieving symptoms of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is commonly known as wear and tear, because as joints age, or as a result of injury, cartilage degenerates and this can result in degenerative joint disease like osteoarthritis, where bones are no longer cushioned, causing pain and inflammation, which leads to limited mobility of that joint. GLM extract in Mussel capsules is rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA), which have known anti-inflammatory properties; also glycosaminoglycans, particularly chondroitin, which is an important component of connective tissue particularly cartilage and tendons that keeps cartilage hydrated and flexible and this helps to maintain its role as the “shock absorbers” of the joints. The EFAs found in GLM block the production of inflammatory chemicals like prostaglandins and leukotrienes and this mechanism is thought to be how they reduce inflammation in osteoarthritic joints and relieve symptoms including pain, swelling and reduced mobility of the joints.
What are the side effects of Mussel?
The most commonly reported side effects when taking Green Lipped Mussel capsules include gastrointestinal discomfort including flatulence and nausea.
When should Mussel not be used?
You should not use Green Lipped Mussel capsules if you:
- are allergic to shellfish or any ingredients in Green Lipped Mussel
- are pregnant or are breastfeeding
- have liver disease
- are taking medicines that interact with Green Lipped Mussel, including anticoagulants
How should Mussel be taken?
You should take your Mussel capsules swallowed whole with a glass of water. You can also open the capsules and sprinkle the contents on your food. You should take 1-4 capsules daily or as recommended by your health professional. You should continue to take your Mussel capsules for as long as recommended by your health professional.
How long should you take Mussel?
You should continue to take your Mussel capsules for as long as recommended by your health professional.
Missed dose of Mussel
If you miss a dose of Green Lipped Mussel take it as soon as you remember, unless it is time to take the next dose, then skip the missed dose. Do not take a double dose.
How should Mussel be stored?
You should store your Green Lipped Mussel below 25°C in a cool dry place.
- Treschow AP, Hodges LD, Wright PF, Wynne PM, Kalafatis N, Macrides TA. Novel anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFAs from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel,Perna canaliculus. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2007 Aug;147(4):645-56.
- Mani S, Lawson JW. In vitro modulation of inflammatory cytokine and IgG levels by extracts of Perna canaliculus. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006 Jan 13;6:1.
- Bui LM, Bierer TL. Influence of green lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus) in alleviating signs of arthritis in dogs. Vet Ther 2003 Winter;4(4):397-407.
- Rialland P, Bicho St, Lussier B, Moreau M, Francis F, del Castillo J, Gauvin D, Troncy E. Effect of a diet enriched with green-lipped mussel on pain behavior and functioning in dogs with clinical osteoarthritis. Can J Vet Res 2013;77:66–74
- Singh M, Hodges LD, Wright PF, et al The CO2-SFE crude lipid extract and the free fatty acid extract from Perna canaliculus have anti-inflammatory effects on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol . 2008;149(2):251-258.
- Li G, Fu Y, Zheng J, Li D. Anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) on chronic arthritis in rats. Marine Drugs 2014 Jan 27;12(2):568-88.
- Brien S, Prescott P, Coghlan B, Bashir N, Lewith G. Systematic review of the nutritional supplement Perna Canaliculus (green-lipped mussel) in the treatment of osteoarthritis. QJM 2008 Mar;101(3):167-79
- Zawadzki M, Janosch C, Szechinski J. Perna canaliculus lipid complex PCSO-524™ demonstrated pain relief for osteoarthritis patients benchmarked against fish oil, a randomized trial, without placebo control. Mar Drugs 2013 Jun 5;11(6):1920-35.
- Emelyanov A, Fedoseev G, Krasnoschekova O, Abulimity A, Trendeleva T, Barnes PJ. Treatment of asthma with lipid extract of New Zealand green-lipped mussel: a randomised clinical trial. Eur Respir J 2002 Sep;20(3):596-600.