Setrona general information
What is Setrona used for?
Depression is a very common mental health illness that affects many people, and although the cause may not be apparent when depression strikes, it can often be linked to a significant event such as trauma, abuse, a chronic health condition, loss of a loved one, redundancy and many other life-changing events.
Setrona tablets 50mg (also known as Zoloft) are an antidepressant medication used to treat depression and other mood disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
Depression can range in severity from mild to very severe. Major Depressive Disorder is the correct medical name for severe depression because it is not a short term illness but can last months or even years. Symptoms of depression include feelings of sadness and feeling down all the time, loss of interest in usual activities, disturbed sleep, change in appetite, extreme tiredness and fatigue, feelings of self-loathing, worthlessness or guilt, difficulty thinking or concentrating. In severe cases, depression may cause recurrent thoughts of suicide. This is a serious illness and needs medical attention. Depression is known to be caused by an imbalance of chemicals in the brain. These chemicals are known as neurotransmitters and are produced by nerve cells (neurones) in the brain, acting as chemical messengers that allow nerve cells to communicate with each other. An imbalance in these neurotransmitters, particularly serotonin, which regulates mood, contributes to the development of depression.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterised by having unreasonable, unwanted, uncontrollable, and recurring thoughts or fears. These obsessions make you feel anxious and compelled by an irresistible urge to keep performing specific repetitive actions. Common compulsive behaviours include constant handwashing to overcome an irrational fear of being dirty or contaminated by germs; constant counting or arranging of items into a symmetrical order for no reason; repeated checking that a door has been locked or the cooker turned off. These compulsive rituals are performed to try and prevent some imagined dreaded event and relieve the anxiety these fears cause. You are more vulnerable to OCD is you are stressed or suffering from fatigue, which is a feeling of being constantly tired.
We all feel anxious and stressed at times, and it usually relates to a stressful event or a significant change in our life, or when something goes wrong. Most of us can manage those feelings of anxiety, and they pass. But if those feelings continue, they can take over your life and interfere with the way you function. This would be considered an anxiety disorder that covers a range of conditions, depending on the symptoms and how it affects you. These include social anxiety disorder (also called social phobia), which has the effect of making you want to escape from or avoid social situations and interactions with other people. Panic disorder can bring on feelings of panic and fear unrelated to any threat or danger. Physical symptoms of a panic attack are real and worrying and include rapid heartbeat, dizziness, tingling and numbness sensations, palpitations, and trembling, amongst others. Agoraphobia is an extreme anxiety disorder that is caused by feelings of being trapped in an uncomfortable situation without an easy escape route and can result in a panic attack. Agoraphobia is not just the fear of open spaces, it can severely affect your behaviour and your ability to function, and you can suffer physical symptoms of an anxiety attack.
Treatment for anxiety disorders is usually some form of counselling or psychological therapy in conjunction with antidepressant medication, as anxiety disorders are associated with low levels of serotonin.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
If, at some stage in your life, you have had the misfortune to experience or witness an extremely shocking event, such as a death, an accident leading to severe injury or physical abuse, you are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is a psychological reaction to the event that you have no control over, and it is also classed as a mental health disorder because it is related to changes in the brain chemistry, causing an imbalance in neurotransmitters. PTSD can also lead to depression if not recognised and treated.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
Premenstrual syndrome (PMs) is the term given to feelings of low mood and irritability that is a regular monthly occurrence for many women and is associated with hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle. Usually, they are tolerable and are relieved once menstruation begins. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of (PMS) with symptoms including depression, anxiety, mood swings, tension, irritability, difficulty concentrating and sleeping, and fatigue, as well as physical symptoms like bloating, and breast pain. PMDD can disrupt your daily life and your relationships and is also thought to be related to a fall in serotonin levels in parallel with changing hormone levels.
How does Setrona work?
Setrona tablets 50mg contain sertraline, an antidepressant and anxiolytic medication that is used to treat depression and other mood disorders. Sertraline in Setrona tablets 50mg belongs to the class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Serotonin is an important chemical messenger found mainly in the brain and central nervous system but also in the nervous system of the intestines and in blood platelets. Serotonin works as a chemical messenger between nerve cells and plays a vital role in regulating cognitive functions like memory and learning, and in regulating mood. Your brain needs a certain amount of serotonin to nurture those "feel good" messages. However, if a lack of serotonin in the brain cannot maintain the nerve pathways that control mood changes, this generates feelings of anxiety, low mood, sadness, despair and panic instead of well-being.
Nerve cells communicate by releasing neurotransmitters like serotonin into the synapse, which is the gap between nerve cells. This stimulates the next nerve to release more serotonin, and so the signal is transmitted down a nerve pathway. Once the message has been passed on, the first nerve cell (pre-synaptic) takes up the remaining neurotransmitter from the synapse, so that the receiving nerve cell (post-synaptic) is no longer stimulated, completing the signal pathway at that point in the chain. If serotonin levels are low, the signal transmitted is weak and is lost rapidly due to reuptake from the synapse.
SSRIs like sertraline in Setrona tablets 50mg work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin by the pre-synaptic neuron, which means that there is more serotonin remaining for the post-synaptic neuron. This increases the amount of serotonin in the brain and allows nerve cells to communicate with each other for longer and, therefore, prolongs the stimulation of nerve pathways that control mood. The overall effect of sertraline in Setrona tablets 50mg is to stabilise mood and relieve symptoms of depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders.
What does Setrona contain?
Setrona tablets 50mg contain the active ingredient sertraline, an SSRI antidepressant medication that is used to treat depression and other mood disorders. They also contain calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, Opadry white OY-S-58910, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, macrogol and talc.
What are the side effects of Setrona?
Most medications have some side effects, but they are not experienced by everyone. Some side effects are commonly experienced when taking Setrona, but others are not so common, and you should discuss any problems or concerns with your primary care physician.
Common side effects when taking Setrona include abdominal pain, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhoea, dry mouth, decreased appetite, weight loss, agitation, anxiety, sexual problems, menstrual problems, dizziness, fatigue, headache, increased sweating, nervousness, rash, itching, insomnia, drowsiness, palpitations, hot flushes, hypoaesthesia (loss of feeling), tremor, convulsions, vision problems, muscle pain.
When should Setrona not be used?
Have a talk with your primary healthcare physician before taking Setrona tablets 50mg so that you have a full understanding of what this medicine is for and how to use it. There are some reasons for not taking a medication; these are called contraindications, and for Setrona you should consider the following before taking Setrona:
- Have you ever had an unusual reaction or an allergy when taking Setrona?
- Are you pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Do you have any problems with your liver?
- Do you have diabetes as Setrona may affect your blood sugar levels?
- Do you have epilepsy that is not well controlled?
- Do you have the eye condition glaucoma?
- Do you have a bleeding condition or an irregular heartbeat?
What medications interact with Setrona?
Some medicines interact with Setrona tablets 50mg and may affect the way it works, or are affected by Setrona or increase side effects; you should discuss possible interactions with your primary care physician. These may include monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for depression; the analgesic tramadol, tryptophan, or phentermine (weight-reducing medicines), lithium for mood alteration, sumatriptan for migraine; St John's wort, a herbal remedy used to treat mood disorders, cimetidine for reflux and ulcers drugs, the antipsychotic pimozide, clozapine for schizophrenia, the anticoagulant warfarin, phenytoin for epilepsy, the sedative diazepam, tolbutamide for diabetes, methadone for drug addiction.
If other medications may interact with Setrona, your doctor will discuss these with you.
How should Setrona be taken and for how long?
You should take your Setrona tablets 50mg with a glass of water with or without food, usually once a day, at the same time each day. Your doctor may increase your dose, depending on what you are being treated for. You should continue to take your Setrona tablets 100mg for as long as recommended by your doctor, which may be for several weeks or months. It may take 2 to 4 weeks or even longer before you start to feel better, so you should not stop taking your tablets before this if you do not feel immediate relief of symptoms.
You may need to continue taking Setrona tablets for several months or longer to prevent any relapse of symptoms, and by taking your Setrona tablets 50mg continually, you will help prevent a relapse of your condition and recurrence of symptoms.
If you stop taking your Setrona tablets 50mg suddenly, you may experience withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, it is recommended that you come off Setrona gradually rather than abruptly, to reduce withdrawal symptoms.
Missed dose of Setrona
If you miss a dose of Setrona tablets 50mg take it as soon as you remember, unless it is time to take the next dose, then skip the missed dose. Do not take a double dose.
How should Setrona be stored?
You should store your Setrona tablets 50mg below 25°C in a cool dry place.