Hygroton general information
What is Hygroton used for?
Oedema is the build-up of excess fluid that accumulates in the spaces between cells of the body tissues (interstitial spaces) or in body cavities. If the fluid is not drained away, this fluid retention can cause severe health problems. Hygroton tablets 25mg are used to treat oedema caused by various conditions. These include congestive heart failure, kidney disorders, cirrhosis of the liver with ascites, which is a liver disease that causes accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, and premenstrual syndrome. Hygroton tablets 25mg are also used to treat arterial hypertension. This is high blood pressure that can damage the artery walls, particularly in the arteries that supply the lungs and kidneys.
Causes and symptoms of oedema
Poor nutrition with low protein levels can cause oedema, also some medications like corticosteroids and chemotherapy such as with cisplatin. Oedema is also a symptom of congestive heart failure, liver disease, kidney disease and some cancers. When small blood vessels become narrowed, this increases resistance to blood flow within those blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. This makes the vessels leaky, forcing fluid out of the blood and into the interstitial spaces. Damage to small blood vessels also makes them leaky.
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by damage to the small vessels of the kidneys. It is characterised by having too much protein in the urine and reduced protein in the blood. This condition can lead to oedema throughout the tissues of the body.
Ascites is the term given to the build-up of fluid in the abdominal cavity and is commonly caused by liver cirrhosis, cancer, and heart failure. In cirrhosis of the liver, increased pressure in the portal vein, which carries blood from the intestines to the liver, forces fluid out of the blood into the abdominal cavity. Cirrhosis of the liver is caused by severe damage to the liver, causing scarring and loss of function. It is usually due to excess alcohol or infection with hepatitis C virus.
If the valves in the legs are impaired or damaged, blood cannot flow back to the heart is restricted. This is known as venous insufficiency. Blood pools in the veins of the leg, forcing fluid out into the surrounding tissues.
Symptoms of oedema depend on where the fluid is building up, which is most common in the ankles, legs, and feet. Oedema causes swollen ankles, puffiness, skin that appears to be tight, shiny and stiff, indentation when pressing the skin, decreased urine, rapid weight gain, and bloating. Oedema in the lungs causes is called pleural effusion and causes coughing and fatigue.
Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Blood pressure is the force of your heart pumping blood around the body, combined with the resistance of the artery walls to the blood as it is forced into the circulation. If the arteries become narrowed or constricted, this increases their resistance, and more force is needed for the heart to pump blood. This increased force causes hypertension, which is high blood pressure when your body is relaxed and at rest. Essential hypertension is high blood pressure with usually no obvious and identifiable cause. High blood pressure puts a strain on the heart by increasing its workload and its need for more oxygen. The extra force of blood in the circulation can damage blood vessels, especially smaller blood vessels, such as those in the kidneys, which can lead to kidney damage. Hypertension increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, stroke, and heart attack. There are usually no symptoms of high blood pressure, so you will only know if you have high blood pressure by having a check.
Two blood pressure measurements indicate whether your blood pressure is within the normal range. Systolic pressure measures the force generated by the heart contracting with each heartbeat as it pumps blood out into the arteries. Diastolic pressure is the resting phase between each heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes, and the heart fills with blood. When your blood pressure is measured, it is expressed as systolic pressure (the highest measure) over diastolic pressure (the lowest measure). Isolated systolic arterial hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in older people and is caused by stiffening of the arterial walls.
Arterial hypertension is high blood pressure in arteries that supply various parts of the body, such as the lungs and kidneys.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension the lungs is increased pressure when pumping blood from the heart to the lungs due to narrowing of these arteries. The heart must work harder to pump blood to the lungs, and this can lead to congestive heart failure. Symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension include shortness of breath, pain in the right side of the abdomen, rapid heartbeat, chest pain, loss of appetite, swelling of the ankles.
Renovascular or nephrogenic arterial hypertension is caused by narrowing of the arteries that deliver blood to the kidneys. This makes it harder for the kidneys to do their job, which is to filter blood. This decreased perfusion activates the renin-angiotensin hormone system. Renin is produced by the kidneys and promotes the formation of angiotensin II in the lungs, which increases blood pressure.
Congestive heart failure
Blocked coronary arteries that supply the heart with blood deprives the heart muscle of essential oxygen needed to keep it pumping. This can weaken the heart muscle so that it is unable to pump efficiently, a condition known as congestive heart failure. The heart has to work harder to keep pumping, putting more strain on the heart muscle, which makes the situation worse. You may have no symptoms at first, but as the condition worsens, you may start to feel breathless on exertion and notice swelling around your ankles and feet. This swelling is due to oedema, caused by poor circulation and can also happen around the heart. Heart failure can also be caused by damage to the heart muscle due to a heart attack, a damaged heart valve, infection, and excess alcohol. Hygroton tablets 25mg are used to treat mild to moderate stable chronic heart failure
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the term given to physical symptoms and feelings of low mood and irritability. These symptoms are associated with hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle. One of the physical symptoms is extreme bloating caused by fluid retention in the tissues. This can cause weight gain, swelling and extreme discomfort. Hygroton tablets 25mg are used to prevent fluid build-up in PMS.
High levels of calcium in the urine can cause the formation of calcium oxalate calculi, commonly called kidney stones. Idiopathic, normocalcaemic hypercalciuria is a condition where the high levels of calcium have no obvious cause. Hygroton tablets 25mg are used to prevent the formation of kidney stones.
How does Hygroton work?
Hygroton tablets 25mg contain chlorthalidone, a diuretic that is used to treat oedema due to a range of conditions, and lower blood pressure. Chlorthalidone in Hygroton tablets 25mg is a benzothiadiazine, which is a thiazide-related diuretic, chemically related to the sulphonamides, with a long duration of action.
Chlorthalidone in Hygroton tablets 25mg acts directly on the kidneys at the region of the distal convoluted tubule. This is where salt balance is regulated by the reabsorption of sodium ions (Na) and chloride ion (Cl) back into the blood from the urine. This process is mediated by a Na-Cl transporter in the kidney cells of the distal convoluted tubule. Chlorthalidone binds to a receptor on these cells that blocks the action of the Na-Cl transporter. This action inhibits the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions back into the blood and promotes the removal of salts and water from the blood. Chlorthalidone also promotes reabsorption of calcium ions and increases excretion of hydrogen (H) and potassium (K) ions. The overall effect is that more salts are excreted into the urine, and more water is removed from the blood, which in turn draws more water out of the tissues. This increases urine volume, decreases blood volume, and reduces the resistance to blood flow in peripheral blood vessels.
Hygroton tablets 25mg lower blood pressure in hypertension. They also remove excess fluid from the body tissues, reducing oedema; also from the blood. For this reason, diuretics are often called water tablets.
Hygroton tablets 25mg also prevent the formation of kidney stones because they reduce excretion of calcium ions.
What does Hygroton contain?
Hygroton tablets 25mg contain the active ingredient chlorthalidone, a diuretic that is used to treat oedema due to a range of conditions, and lower blood pressure. They also contain silicon dioxide, iron oxide red, iron oxide yellow, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, maize starch, and purified talc.
What are the side effects of Hygroton?
Most medications have some side effects, but they are not experienced by everyone. Some side effects are commonly experienced when taking Hygroton tablets 25mg, but others are not so common, and you should discuss any problems or concerns with your primary care physician.
Common side effects when taking Hygroton include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, decreased appetite, constipation, orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure when getting up), itching, rash, erectile dysfunction, dizziness, vertigo, weakness.
When should Hygroton not be used?
Have a talk with your primary healthcare physician before taking Hygroton tablets 25mg so that you have a full understanding of what this medicine is for and how to use it. There are some reasons for not taking a medication; these are called contraindications, and for Hygroton you should consider the following before taking Hygroton:
- Have you ever had an unusual reaction or an allergy when taking Hygroton?
- Are you pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Do you have any problems with your kidneys or your liver?
- Do you have low sodium or potassium levels in your blood, or too much calcium?
- Do you have gout or have you ever had gout?
- Have you had high blood pressure during pregnancy?
What medications interact with Hygroton?
Some medicines interact with Hygroton tablets 25mg and may affect the way it works, or are affected by Hygroton or increase side effects; you should discuss possible interactions with your primary care physician. These may include antihypertensives like ACE inhibitors, anticonvulsants like phenytoin, some diabetic medications like metformin and insulin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like indomethacin, lithium for mood disorders, digoxin for heart failure, allopurinol for gout, the immunosuppressant cyclosporine, cholestyramine for high cholesterol, corticosteroids for inflammation and allergy, vitamin D or calcium supplements, some cytotoxic drugs like methotrexate, .
If other medications may interact with Hygroton, your doctor will discuss these with you.
How should Hygroton be taken and for how long?
You should take your Hygroton tablets 25mg swallowed whole with a glass of water, in the morning and with food, once daily or every other day. The dose you take and how often depends on your condition and your doctor’s recommendations and may be increased. You should continue to take you Hygroton tablets 25mg for as long as recommended by your doctor until your condition improves.
Missed dose of Hygroton
If you miss a dose of Hygroton tablets 25mg take it as soon as you remember, unless it is time to take the next dose, then skip the missed dose. Do not take a double dose.
How should Hygroton be stored?
You should store your Hygroton tablets 25mg below 25°C in a cool dry place.