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Enlafax XR (Venlafaxine 75mg)

Enlafax general information

What is Enlafax used for?

Enlafax XR capsules 75mg (also known as Efexor) are used to treat major depression and symptoms of depressive illness, including anxiety, loss of interest in usual activities, disturbed sleep, change in appetite, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty thinking or concentrating, and recurrent thoughts of suicide.  Enlafax XR capsules 75mg are also used to treat other mood disorders that affect daily activities and relationships with others including, social anxiety disorder (Social Phobia), panic disorder (panic attacks) and generalised anxiety disorder.   Enlafax XR capsules 75mg help manage the emotional and physical symptoms of depression and other mood disorders to help improve ability to function at work, in family, social life and in leisure activities.

How does Enlafax work?

Enlafax XR capsules 75mg contain venlafaxine which is an antidepressant belonging to the class of drugs known as Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs), but is structurally and chemically different to other antidepressants.  Venlafaxine in Enlafax XR capsules 75mg acts in the brain to correct the chemical imbalance caused by a lack of certain neurotransmitters (brain chemical that allows nerve cells to communicate) that is thought to be one of the major causes of depression and other mood disorders, particularly a lack of serotonin, which controls many body activities, including regulating mood.  Venlafaxine is a potent inhibitor of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline, and also weakly inhibits dopamine reuptake, which means that it blocks the re-uptake of serotonin and noradrenaline from the synapse (the gap between nerve cells across which chemical messages are sent from one nerve cell to another).  If the re-uptake of serotonin and noradrenaline by the first nerve cell (pre-synaptic) is blocked, this means that there is more neurotransmitter remaining for the receiving nerve cell (post-synaptic), which allows nerve cells to communicate with each other for longer.  The action of Enlafax XR capsules 75mg helps relieve symptoms of depression and other mood disorders by increasing the amount of serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain, which in turn increases stimulation of nerve pathways that control mood.  Enlafax XR capsules 75mg are formulated so that venlafaxine is released slowly from spheroids within the capsule into the digestive system for extended-release of the drug. 

What does Enlafax contain?

Enlafax XR capsules 75mg contain the active ingredient venlafaxine hydrochloride, an antidepressant belonging to the class of drugs known as Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) used to treat depression and other mood disorders.  They also contain hypromellose, Eudragit RS 100, Eudragit E12.5, sodium lauryl sulfate, magnesium stearate, titanium dioxide (E171), gelatin, black ink, iron oxide red (E172).

Treating depression with Enlafax

Enlafax XR capsules 75mg (also known as Effexor XR in the US) contain venlafaxine which is an antidepressant belonging to the class of drugs known as Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs), used to treat symptoms of depression, including anxiety, loss of interest in usual activities, disturbed sleep, change in appetite, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty thinking or concentrating and recurrent thoughts of suicide.  One of the major causes of depression is thought to be an imbalance of neurotransmitters (brain chemicals that allows nerve cells to communicate), particularly a lack of serotonin that controls mood.  Enlafax XR capsules 75mg works by specifically blocking the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline from the synapse, or gap between nerve cells across which chemical messages are sent to allow nerve cell to communicate with each other.  By preventing the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline by the first nerve cell (pre-synaptic) there is more neurotransmitter remaining for the receiving nerve cell (post-synaptic), so that nerve cells can communicate with each other for longer which increases stimulation of nerve pathways that control mood changes, relieving symptoms of depression. 

Enlafax for anxiety

Enlafax XR capsules 75mg contain venlafaxine which is an antidepressant belonging to the class of drugs known as Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs), used to treat several anxiety-related conditions, including social anxiety disorder (Social Phobia), panic disorder (panic attacks) and generalised anxiety disorder, where excessive anxiety causes constant and uncontrollable feelings of worry and distress, feeling irritable, and difficulty thinking and sleeping.  Other common symptoms associated with anxiety may include muscle tension, dry mouth, a lump in the throat, cold clammy hands, diarrhoea and nausea.  One of the major causes of anxiety is thought to be an imbalance of neurotransmitters (brain chemicals that allows nerve cells to communicate), particularly a lack of serotonin that controls mood and noradrenaline that is related to drive and motivation.  If there is a lack of serotonin, the brain cells involved in nerve pathways that control mood changes generate feelings of anxiety and panic instead of well-being, which is associated with high levels of serotonin.  Enlafax XR capsules 75mg works by specifically blocking the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline from the synapse, or gap between nerve cells across which chemical messages are sent to allow nerve cell to communicate with each other.  By preventing the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline by the first nerve cell (pre-synaptic) there is more neurotransmitter remaining for the receiving nerve cell (post-synaptic), so that nerve cells can communicate with each other for longer which increases stimulation of nerve pathways that control mood changes, relieving symptoms of anxiety. 

What are the side effects of Enlafax?

The most commonly reported side effects when taking Enlafax XR capsules 75mg are generally mild and transient and usually disappear with continued treatment. They include: decreased or loss of appetite, dry mouth, diarrhoea, nausea, sleeplessness, fatigue, drowsiness, increased sweating, vasodilation (hot flashes), hypertension (increase in blood pressure), sexual problems. 

When should Enlafax not be used?

You should not use Enlafax XR capsules 75mg if you:

  • are allergic to venlafaxine or any ingredients in Enlafax
  • are pregnant or are breastfeeding
  • have liver or kidney disease, without discussion with your doctor
  • have a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease
  • taking any monoamine oxidase inhibitor medications (such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine) as these can cause serious reactions if taken with Enlafax XR or within 14 days
  • are taking medication that affects blood clotting like warfarin as these may increase risk of bleeding if taken with Enlafa
  • are taking medicines that interact with Enlafax including, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for depression, other antidepressants like lithium and Imipramine, the analgesic tramadol, tryptophan, or phentermine (weight-reducing medicines), migraine medicines like sumatriptan, the antipsychotic pimozide, herbal remedies containing St. John´s Wort, bupropion, for nicotine dependence, the antifungal ketoconazole, the antibiotic erythromycin, clozapine for schizophrenia

What medications interact with Enlafax?

Several medications interact with Enlafax capsules 75mg and should either not be taken while you are taking Enlafax or only after discussion and instruction from your doctor:

  • Drugs that cause a serious reaction with Enlafax: monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for depression, medication that affects blood clotting like warfarin, as these may increase risk of bleeding if taken with Enlafax
  • Drugs that affect Enlafax: the analgesic tramadol, sibutramine (weight-reducing medicines), medicines used to treat migraine like sumatriptan, St John's wort, a herbal remedy used to treat mood disorders, cimetidine for reflux and ulcers, antifungals like ketoconazole, antibiotics like erythromycin
  • Drugs that are affected by Enlafax: antidepressants like lithium and Imipramine, clozapine for schizophrenia, the anticoagulant warfarin

How should Enlafax be taken?

You should take your Enlafax XR capsules 75mg with a glass of water, swallowed whole with food once a day, at the same time each day, for several weeks or months, depending on your condition and your doctor’s recommendations.  Your doctor may increase your dose, depending on what you are being treated for.  You should continue to take your Enlafax XR capsules 75mg regularly for as long as recommended by your doctor, usually for several weeks or months and you should continue your medication even if you feel well.

How long should you take Enlafax?

You should continue to take your Enlafax XR capsules 75mg regularly for as long as recommended by your doctor, usually for several weeks or months and you should continue your medication even if you feel well.

Missed dose of Enlafax

If you miss a dose of Enlafax XR capsules 75mg take it as soon as you remember, unless it is time to take the next dose, then skip the missed dose.  Do not take a double dose.

How should Enlafax be stored?

You should store your Enlafax XR capsules 75mg below 25°C in a cool dry place. 

Itrabond (Itraconazole) 100mg

Itrabond general information

What is Itrabond used for?

Itrabond capsules 100mg are used to treat a variety of superficial and systemic fungal infections in various parts of the body.  Fungal infections that Itrabond 100 is used for include:

  • Persistent infections of the skin with pityriasis versicolor, which is caused by the yeast-like fungus malassezia and characterised by rash and patches of flaky skin on the trunk, neck or arms.
  • Persistent infections with the fungus tinea (also called ringworm) in various parts of the body including the body (tinea corporis), foot (tinea pedis) and groin (tinea cruris or jock itch).
  • Candidiasis (thrush) of the mucus membranes such as in the mouth and vagina, also of the skin.
  • Persistent infections of the vagina with the yeast candida (candidiasis).
  • Infection of the nail (onychomycosis) with yeast or dermatophyte fungi like tinea.
  • Fungal keratitis, an infection of the cornea of the eye by mould fungi like aspergillus or the yeast Candida, resulting in inflammation.
  • Systemic fungal infections that can affect internal organs such as histoplasmosis a rare systemic fungal infection from inhalation of a soil fungus into the lung causing flu-like symptoms; also aspergillosis, a lung infection caused by breathing in spores of the mould fungus aspergillus.  These systemic fungal infections are more common in people who are immunocompromised.

How does Itrabond work?

Itrabond capsules 100mg contain itraconazole broad-spectrum antifungal drug belonging to the triazole group of antifungals.  Itraconazole in Itrabond capsules 100mg is a potent and specific inhibitor of fungal enzymes necessary for the synthesis of ergosterol, an important component of fungal cell membrane that is not found in animal cells.  A lack of ergosterol weakens the fungal cell membrane, causing the cell contents to leak out, which kills the fungus.  This prevents the infection from spreading, relieving symptoms caused by the infection, including, itching and inflammation. 

What does Itrabond contain?

Itrabond capsules 100mg contain the active ingredient itraconazole a broad-spectrum antifungal drug, used to treat and prevent a variety of fungal infections.  The capsules are comprised of hard gelatin and contain itraconazole pellets.

Treating fungal infections with Itrabond

Itrabond capsules 100mg contain itraconazole, a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that is used to treat a wide range of superficial and systemic fungal infections, caused by a variety of susceptible fungal species.  Itrabond capsules 100mg specifically inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol, an important component of fungal cell membrane, which kills the fungus and stops it spreading; relieving the itching, scaling and other more severe symptoms caused by the fungal infection.  Fungal infections that can be treated with Itrabond 100 include:

  • Persistent infections of the skin with pityriasis versicolor, which caused by the yeast-like fungus malassezia and characterised by rash and patches of flaky skin on the trunk, neck or arms.
  • Persistent infections with the fungus tinea (also called ringworm) in various parts of the body including the body (tinea corporis), foot (tinea pedis) and groin (tinea cruris or jock itch).
  • Candidiasis (thrush) of the mucus membranes such as in the mouth and vagina, also of the skin.
  • Persistent infections of the vagina with the yeast candida (candidiasis).
  • Infection of the nail (onychomycosis) with yeast or dermatophyte fungi like tinea.
  • Fungal keratitis, an infection of the cornea of the eye by mould fungi like aspergillus or the yeast Candida, resulting in inflammation.
  • Systemic fungal infections that can affect internal organs such as histoplasmosis a rare systemic fungal infection from inhalation of a soil fungus into the lung causing flu-like symptoms; also aspergillosis, a lung infection caused by breathing in spores of the mould fungus Aspergillus.  These systemic fungal infections are more common in people who are immunocompromised.

Itrabond for thrush

Itrabond capsules 100mg contain itraconazole, a synthetic broad-spectrum antifungal agent that is used to treat a variety of fungal infections including thrush or candidiasis, which is caused by the yeast candida albicans.  Although any site on the body can become infected with candida, including the gastrointestinal tract, the most common site of infection are the mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina, with symptoms including creamy/white lesions or discharge and itching or irritation.  Itrabond capsules 100mg specifically inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol, an important component of fungal cell membrane, which kills the fungus and stops it spreading.  In this way Itrabond capsules 100mg relieves the symptoms of thrush in all its locations, and prevents constant reinfection in chronic recurrent vaginal thrush.

What are the side effects of Itrabond?

The most commonly reported side effects when taking Itrabond capsules 100mg include upset stomach, stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, skin rash, headache, constipation, dizziness, menstrual disorders.

When should Itrabond not be used?

You should not use Itrabond capsules 100mg if you:

  • are allergic to itraconazole or any ingredients in Itrabond
  • are pregnant or are breastfeeding, without discussion with your doctor
  • have kidney or liver disease
  • are taking medicines that interact with Itrabond, including, the antiviral rifampicin, rifabutin or zidovudine; terfenadine or astemizole for allergy, cisapride for reflux, the anticonvulsant phenytoin, the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide, medicines for diabetes such as glipizide, tolbutamide or glibenclamide, theophylline for asthma, the immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine, some benzodiazepines such as midazolam, cholesterol lowering drugs like simvastatin and lovastatin, ergotamine for migraine or ergometrine to prevent bleeding after childbirth, the calcium channel blocker nisoldipine for high blood pressure and angina, the antibiotics clarithromycin and erythromycin, the antipsychotic pimozide

What medications interact with Itrabond?

Several medications interact with Itrabond capsules 100mg and should either not be taken while you are taking Itrabond or only after discussion and instruction from your doctor:

  • Drugs that cause a serious reaction with Itrabond: cisapride for reflux can cause heart problems
  • Drugs that affect Itrabond: the anticonvulsant phenytoin, the antiviral rifampicin, rifabutin or zidovudine; the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide, the antibiotics clarithromycin and erythromycin
  • Drugs that are affected by Itrabond: medicines for diabetes such as glipizide, tolbutamide or glibenclamide; theophylline for asthma, immunosuppressants tacrolimus and cyclosporine, some benzodiazepines such as midazolam, cholesterol lowering drugs like simvastatin and lovastatin, ergot alkaloids like ergotamine for migraine or ergometrine to prevent bleeding after childbirth, the calcium channel blocker nisoldipine for high blood pressure and angina, the antipsychotic pimozide

How should Itrabond be taken?

You should take your Itrabond capsules 100mg swallowed whole with a glass of water and with food once or twice daily depending on what you are being treated and on your doctor’s recommendations.  The dose you take and for how long depends on the type and severity of your infection and your doctor’s recommendations.  You should always finish your course of Itrabond 100, which may be for a few days or weeks, if not, the infection may not clear up completely.  

How long should you take Itrabond?

You should always finish your course of Itrabond 100, which may be for a few days or weeks, if not, the infection may not clear up completely.  

Missed dose of Itrabond

If you miss a dose of Itrabond capsules 100mg take it as soon as you remember, unless it is time to take the next dose, then skip the missed dose.  Do not take a double dose.

How should Itrabond be stored?

You should store your Itrabond capsules 100mg below 25°C in a cool dry place. 

Glyciphage 850mg (Metformin)

Glyciphage general information

What is Glyciphage used for?

Glyciphage tablets 850mg are an oral diabetes medication that is used to control blood sugar levels in people with type-2 diabetes mellitus (also called non insulin-dependent diabetes or maturity onset diabetes) who are unable to achieve adequate glycaemic control (normal blood sugar levels) with diet and exercise alone, which is a particular problem in overweight people. Glyciphage tablets 500mg can be used as first time treatment for newly diagnosed diabetics, or for patients who are not responding to an alternative medication, and can be used either alone or in combination with another oral antihyperglycaemic medication (lowers blood sugar). In some cases Glyciphage is used in conjunction with insulin in type 1 diabetes (also called insulin -dependent diabetes), where insulin alone is not enough to control blood sugar levels.

How does Glyciphage work?

Glyciphage tablets 850mg contain the active ingredient Metformin hydrochloride, which is an oral antihyperglycaemic medication belonging to the biguanide group of drugs. Metformin in Glyciphage tablets 850mg controls blood glucose (sugar) by lowering levels of glucose after a meal (posprandial) as well as keeping levels normal between meals (basal levels), by helping the body respond to insulin without increasing insulin production. Metformin in Glyciphage tablets 850mg works using three different mechanisms: decreasing glucose production in the liver, which is normally switched off when blood glucose levels are high enough; increasing sensitivity to insulin in fat and muscle tissue, where excess glucose is removed from the blood and stored; reducing absorption of glucose by the intestines form the diet. Maintaining glycaemic control with Glyciphage tablets 850mg reduces risk of serious health complications associated with diabetes, including diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retina in the eye with loss of vision), diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage) and diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage).

What does Glyciphage contain?

Glyciphage tablets 850mg contain the active ingredient metformin, which is an oral antihyperglycaemic medication used to control blood sugar levels in people with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Treating type 2 diabetes with Glyciphage

Glyciphage tablets 850mg contain Metformin, which is an oral antihyperglycaemic medication that is used to control blood sugar levels in people with type-2 diabetes mellitus (also called non insulin-dependent diabetes or maturity onset diabetes) who are unable to achieve adequate glycaemic control (normal blood sugar levels) with diet and exercise alone, which is a particular problem in overweight people. Metformin in Glyciphage tablets 850mg lowers blood sugar after a meal (posprandial) as well as keeping levels normal between meals (basal levels), by helping the body respond to insulin without increasing insulin production, using three different mechanisms: decreasing glucose production in the liver, which is normally switched off when blood glucose levels are high enough; increasing sensitivity to insulin in fat and muscle tissue, where excess glucose is removed from the blood and stored; reducing absorption of glucose by the intestines form the diet. Maintaining glycaemic control with Glyciphage tablets 850mg reduces risk of serious health complications associated with diabetes, including diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retina in the eye with loss of vision), diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage) and diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage).

What are the side effects of Glyciphage?

The most commonly reported side effects when taking Glyciphage tablets 850mg include: gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, which are usually mild and resolve spontaneously during continued treatment; metallic taste in the mouth; and skin rash. A rare and potentially life threatening side effect is lactic acidosis (a build up of lactic acid in the blood) that can occur due to accumulation of metformin, particularly if you are taking high doses of metformin above 2000mg per day, have kidney problems, drink excessive amounts of alcohol, are elderly.

When should Glyciphage not be used?

You should not use Glyciphage if you:
  • are allergic to metformin or any other biguanide or any ingredients in Glyciphage tablets 850mg
  • are pregnant or are breastfeeding without discussion with your doctor
  • have liver or kidney disease
  • have a conditions affecting renal function, like dehydration, severe infection or shock
  • have diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic precoma
  • have acute or chronic disease which may cause tissue hypoxia such as heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, shock, acute significant blood loss, sepsis, gangrene, pancreatitis
  • have a history of lactic acidosis
  • have a problem with alcohol
  • are taking medications that may interact with Glyciphage tablets 850mg including: cimetidine for reflux and ulcers, medications for high blood pressure and heart conditions like nifedipine, beta-blockers, diuretics, other diabetes medications like sulfonylureas and repaglinide, corticosteroids such as prednisone, cortisone, anticoagulants
  • undergoing radiological treatment with intravascular iodinated contrast agents which may lead to renal failure, resulting in metformin accumulation and a risk of lactic acidosis

What medications interact with Glyciphage

Several medications interact with Glyciphage and should either not be taken while you are taking Glyciphage or only after discussion and instruction from your doctor:
  • Drugs that interact with Glyciphage to increase side effects: other diabetes medications like sulfonylureas and repaglinide, ACE inhibitors for high blood pressure, corticosteroids such as prednisone, cortisone
  • Drugs that affect Glyciphage: cimetidine for reflux and ulcers, medications for high blood pressure and heart conditions like nifedipine, beta-blockers, diuretics , thyroid medicines
  • Drugs that are affected by Glyciphage: anticoagulants

How should Glyciphage be taken?

You should take your Glyciphage tablets 850mg with a glass of water and with food. The dose you take and how often should be as recommended by your doctor. The usual starting dose is one tablet once, twice or 3 times daily during or immediately after a meal, to reduce stomach effects. You will have your blood sugar levels monitored and your dose may be adjusted after a few weeks, depending on how well your blood sugar levels are controlled. You should continue to take your Metformin tablets 500mg for as long as recommended by your doctor, which may be for long periods.

How long should you take Glyciphage?

You should continue to take your Glyciphage tablets 850mg for as long as recommended by your doctor, which may be for long periods.

Missed dose of Glyciphage

If you miss a dose of Glyciphage take it as soon as you remember, unless it is time to take the next dose, then skip the missed dose. Do not take a double dose.

How should Glyciphage be stored?

You should store your Glyciphage tablets 850mg below 25°C in a cool dry place out of direct sunlight.



Heartgard Plus Chewable Small

Heartgard Plus general information

What is Heartgard Plus used for?

Heartgard Plus chewables are used to protect small dogs against heartworm, which is a parasite transmitted by mosquitoes that can cause serious health problems that can result in heart failure and eventually death. Heartgard Plus is also used to treat and control roundworm and hookworm, which are both intestinal parasites that are transmitted when a dog ingests its eggs from the environment such as the soil, or transmitted to puppies while still in the womb, or to nursing puppies through infected milk. Both infections can cause serious health problems for your dog; roundworm deprives dogs of essential nutrients and may cause intestinal obstruction and hookworm feeds on the intestinal wall, causing significant blood loss. Heartgard Plus kills these parasites breaking the parasitic lifecycle and protecting your dog from serious and life-threatening illness.

How does Heartgard Plus work?

Heartgard Plus chewables contain two active ingredients; ivermectin an antiparasitic drug and pyrantel, a deworming agent. The larval stage of the heartworm is transferred into the blood of the host dog when an infected mosquito bites the dog; the larvae then enter the tissues and migrate to the heart and lungs where they mature into adult worms causing tissue damage which can be fatal. Ivermectin in Heartgard Plus acts of the nervous system of the larval stage of the parasitic heartworm and causes paralysis and death before it reaches the heart or lungs of your dog. Pyrantel in Heartgard Plus is a neuromuscular blocker that paralyses roundworm and hookworm while they are feeding in the dogs’s intestine, so that the parasitic worms lose their grip on the intestinal wall and pass out in the dog’s stools.

What does Heartgard Plus contain?

Heartgard Plus contains the active ingredients ivermectin an antiparasitic drug and pyrantel pamoate, a deworming agent, in a chewable form.

What Heartgard Plus for Dogs doses are available?

Heartgard Plus chewables are available in different doses depending on the weight of your dog:
  • Chewables for small dogs up to 11kg or 25lbs, containing Invermectin 68mcg and Pyrantel 57mg
  • Chewables for medium dogs up to 12-22kg or 26-50lbs, containing Invermectin 136mcg and Pyrantel 114mg
  • Chewables for large dogs up to 24-45kg or 49-100lbs, containing Invermectin 272mcg and Pyrantel 227mg
For dogs over 45kg or 100lbs, the appropriate combination of chewables should be used.

Treating canine heartworm with Heartgard Plus

Heartgard Plus chewables contains ivermectin, an antiparasitic drug that is used to protect dogs against heartworm, which is a parasite that can cause serious health problems that can result in heart failure and eventually death. Heartworm is transmitted by mosquitoes and the larval stage is transferred into the blood of the host dog when an infected mosquito bites the dog; the larvae then enter the tissues and migrate to the heart and lungs where they mature into adult worms causing tissue damage which can be fatal. Ivermectin in Heartgard Plus chewables acts of the nervous system of the larval stage of the parasitic heartworm and causes paralysis and death before it reaches the heart or lungs of your dog, breaking the parasitic lifecycle and protecting your dog from serious and life-threatening illness.

Treating canine roundworm and hookworm with Heartgard Plus

Heartgard Plus chewables contains pyrantel, a deworming agent that is used to protect dogs against roundworm and hookworm, both of which are intestinal parasites transmitted when a dog ingests its eggs from the environment, such as from the soil, or transmitted to puppies while still in the womb, or to nursing puppies through infected milk. Pyrantel in Heartgard Plus is a neuromuscular blocker that paralyses roundworm and hookworm while they are feeding in the dogs’s intestine, so that the parasitic worms lose their grip on the intestinal wall and pass out in the dog’s stools. Heartgard Plus kills these parasites breaking the parasitic lifecycle and protects your dog from serious and life-threatening illness.

What are the side effects of Heartgard Plus?

Following the use of Heartgard Plus chewables, digestive and neurological side effects have been reported on rare occasions, including: vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation, excessive dilation of the pupil (mydriasis), staggering, convulsions, lethargy, loss of muscle coordination (ataxia).

How should Heartgard Plus for Dogs be given?

You should give one Heartgard Plus chewable to your dog either offered by hand or in your dog’s food. The chewable should be chewed and not swallowed whole and to ensure a complete dose your dog should eat the entire chewable. Ivermectin in Heartgard Plus is effective against the tissue stage of heartworm larvae for a month and therefore you should give Heartgard Plus to your dog once a month (every 30 days), one month before the start of the mosquito season to one month after the last exposure to mosquitoes. Heartgard Plus chewables can be given to pregnant or breeding bitches, stud dogs and puppies form age 6 weeks.

How long should you give Heartgard Plus to your dog?

Ivermectin in Heartgard Plus chewables is effective against the tissue stage of heartworm larvae for a month and therefore you should give Heartgard Plus to your dog once a month (every 30 days), one month before the start of the mosquito season to one month after the last exposure to mosquitoes.

Missed dose of Heartgard Plus

If you miss a dose of Heartgard Plus chewables and forget to give your dog their monthly chewable, you should give one as soon as you remember, as the effectiveness of Heartgard Plus begins to wear off after 30 days and your dog may be at risk of re-infection.

How should Heartgard Plus be stored?

You should store your dog’s Heartgard Plus chewables in a cool dry place below 25°C and protect from direct light.


Prednisolone-AFT 1% Eye Drops

Prednisolone-AFT general information

What is Prednisolone-AFT used for?

Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 1% are used to treat inflammation of the eye, including inflammation of the ocular or bulbar conjunctiva, a clear membrane that covers the outer surface of the eye or sclera (white of the eye) and the palpebral conjunctiva that lines the inside of the eyelids.  Also the cornea, which is the clear protective area at the front of the eye, and the anterior segment of the globe that includes the iris, pupil, lens, cornea and fluid filled anterior chamber.  Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 1% are used as short-term treatment to relieve symptoms of eye inflammation, including irritation, burning, redness and swelling that are caused by chemicals, heat, radiation, allergy, or foreign objects in the eye, but they should not be used for viral, fungal or bacterial eye infection and is only suitable for steroid-responsive inflammation.

How does Prednisolone-AFT work?

Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 1% contain prednisolone, which is corticosteroid hormone and is a synthetic derivative of the natural glucocorticoid cortisol, with potent anti-inflammatory properties.  Prednisolone in Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 1% acts directly through the glucocorticoid receptor that is expressed inside most cells of the body and regulates transcription of specific genes that control the inflammatory and immune response.  The major therapeutic actions of prednisolone are to reduce the vascular (blood vessels) and cellular inflammatory response primarily by blocking the production of inflammatory chemicals, like prostaglandins and leukotrienes, from inflammatory cells.  This action reduces the swelling (oedema), redness and pain associated with inflammation and modifies the actions of cells involved in allergic and inflammatory responses, such as phagocytic migration. 

What does Prednisolone-AFT contain?

Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops contain the active ingredient prednisolone acetate (microfine suspension) 1.0%, a potent anti-inflammatory corticosteroid used to treat inflammation of the eye.  They also contain benzalkonium chloride (preservative), carbomer 980, sodium acetate trihydrate, sodium hydroxide, sorbitol, water.

Treating inflammation of the eye with Prednisolone-AFT

Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 1% contain prednisolone, which is corticosteroid hormone and is a synthetic derivative of the natural glucocorticoid cortisol, with potent anti-inflammatory properties.  Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 1% are used for short-term treatment of steroid-responsive inflammation of the eye, including inflammation of the ocular or bulbar conjunctiva, a clear membrane that covers the outer surface of the eye or sclera (white of the eye) and the palpebral conjunctiva that lines the inside of the eyelids.  Also the cornea, which is the clear protective area at the front of the eye, and the anterior segment of the globe that includes the iris, pupil, lens, cornea and fluid filled anterior chamber.  Prednisolone in Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 1% acts directly through the glucocorticoid receptor inside the cells of the eye and regulates transcription of specific genes that control the inflammatory and immune response.  The major therapeutic actions of prednisolone are to reduce the vascular (blood vessels) and cellular inflammatory response primarily by blocking the production of inflammatory chemicals, like prostaglandins and leukotrienes, from inflammatory cells to reduce the swelling (oedema), redness and pain associated with inflammation and to modify the actions of cells involved in allergic and inflammatory responses, such as phagocytic migration.  These actions of prednisolone in Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 1% help relieve symptoms of eye inflammation, including irritation, burning, redness and swelling that are caused by chemicals, heat, radiation, allergy, or foreign objects in the eye, but they should not be used for viral, fungal or bacterial eye infection and is only suitable inflammation.

What are the side effects of Prednisolone-AFT?

The most commonly reported side effects when taking Prednisolone-AFT include: eye irritation like burning or stinging, increased intraocular pressure (IOP) that may lead to glaucoma and optic nerve damage, delayed wound healing, cataract formation at the back of the lens (posterior subcapsular), visual disturbance (blurry vision) and allergic reactions.  Long term use of corticosteroids can lead to infection of the eye and can mask infections; also to systemic effects.

When should Prednisolone-AFT not be used?

You should not use Prednisolone-AFT if you:

  • are allergic to prednisolone or any ingredients in Prednisolone-AFT
  • are pregnant or are breastfeeding, without discussion with your doctor
  • have a bacterial, viral or fungal eye infection
  • have glaucoma or are at risk of developing glaucoma
  • have recently had cataract surgery as corticosteroids can delay healing
  • have mustard gas keratitis (inflammation of the cornea caused by the chemical mustard gas) and Sjogren’s keratoconjunctivitis (inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva as a symptom of the autoimmune disease Sjogren’s syndrome)

How should Prednisolone-AFT be taken?

You should apply your Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops by shaking the bottle well, tilting your head back, pulling the lower eyelid to form a pouch and applying one drop into this conjunctival sac, using the dropper provided.  You should apply your Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops 2-4 times daily or more frequently in the first 24-48 hours as required.  You should see an improvement in symptoms after 2 days but continue to use your Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops for as long as recommended by your doctor but not for more than 10 days.  If you wear soft contact lenses these should be removed before adding Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops into your eye, as the preservative can cause discolouration, and not returned for at least 15 minutes.

How long should you take Prednisolone-AFT?

You should see an improvement in symptoms after 2 days but continue to use your Prednisolone-AFT Eye Drops for as long as recommended by your doctor but not for more than 10 days.  

Missed dose of Prednisolone-AFT

If you miss a dose of Prednisolone-AFT take it as soon as you remember, unless it is time to take the next dose, then skip the missed dose.  Do not take a double dose.

How should Prednisolone-AFT be stored?

You should store your Prednisolone-AFT below 25°C in a cool dry place. 

 

 

All medicines have risks and benefits, and individual results may vary. Only purchase medicines from this site in accordance with the advice you have obtained from an appropriate medical professional.
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